如何将Python项目发布到PyPI

The Python Package Index (PyPI) is a repository of software for the Python programming language.

如何打包可以参考官方文档,如果看英文比较费劲,参考这个译文。也可以参考官方提供的例子

创建项目

  1. 目录结构
    ├── LICENSE.txt
    ├── MANIFEST.in
    ├── README.md
    ├── pyproject.toml
    ├── setup.cfg
    ├── setup.py
    └── app
        ├── __init__.py
        └── app.py
    

接下来我们来逐一编写除了代码以外的文件。

  1. README.md

    是关于项目的描述文件,一般包含怎样安装项目,怎样使用项目等。markdown 语法可以参考 adam-p/markdown-here

  2. LICENSE.txt

    开源License,如MIT,Apache license 2.0等。关于项目用什么License,可参考 Choose an open source license

  3. setup.cfg

    一个配置信息文件,运行setup.py程序打包的时候会用到里面的配置,作为setup.py的命令行参数。内容如下

    [metadata]
    # This includes the license file(s) in the wheel.
    # https://wheel.readthedocs.io/en/stable/user_guide.html#including-license-files-in-the-generated-wheel-file
    license_files = LICENSE.txt
    desciption-file = README.md
    
    [bdist_wheel]
    # This flag says to generate wheels that support both Python 2 and Python
    # 3. If your code will not run unchanged on both Python 2 and 3, you will
    # need to generate separate wheels for each Python version that you
    # support. Removing this line (or setting universal to 0) will prevent
    # bdist_wheel from trying to make a universal wheel. For more see:
    # https://packaging.python.org/guides/distributing-packages-using-setuptools/#wheels
    universal=1
    

    关于setup.cfg更详细的信息,可参考 Building and Distributing Packages with Setuptools

  4. setup.py

    用来描述项目,打包的时候会用到这个文件。它告诉PyPI我们的项目叫什么名字,是什么版本,依赖哪些库,支持哪些操作系统,可以在哪些版本的Python上运行,等等

    """A setuptools based setup module.
    See:
    https://packaging.python.org/guides/distributing-packages-using-setuptools/
    https://github.com/pypa/sampleproject
    """
    import setuptools
    import os
    
    CUR_DIR = os.path.abspath(os.path.dirname(__file__))
    README = os.path.join(CUR_DIR, "README.md")
    with open("README.md", "r") as fd:
       long_description = fd.read()
    
    # Arguments marked as "Required" below must be included for upload to PyPI.
    # Fields marked as "Optional" may be commented out.
    
    setuptools.setup(
       # This is the name of your project. The first time you publish this
       # package, this name will be registered for you. It will determine how
       # users can install this project, e.g.:
       #
       # $ pip install sampleproject
       #
       # And where it will live on PyPI: https://pypi.org/project/sampleproject/
       #
       # There are some restrictions on what makes a valid project name
       # specification here:
       # https://packaging.python.org/specifications/core-metadata/#name
       # Required
       name = "tobe",
    
       # Versions should comply with PEP 440:
       # https://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0440/
       #
       # For a discussion on single-sourcing the version across setup.py and the
       # project code, see
       # https://packaging.python.org/en/latest/single_source_version.html
       # Required
       version = "0.1.2",
    
       # This is a one-line description or tagline of what your project does. This
       # corresponds to the "Summary" metadata field:
       # https://packaging.python.org/specifications/core-metadata/#summary
       # Optional
       description="A small ssh display tool",
    
       # This is an optional longer description of your project that represents
       # the body of text which users will see when they visit PyPI.
       #
       # Often, this is the same as your README, so you can just read it in from
       # that file directly (as we have already done above)
       #
       # This field corresponds to the "Description" metadata field:
       # https://packaging.python.org/specifications/core-metadata/#description-optional
       # Optional
       long_description=long_description,
    
       # Denotes that our long_description is in Markdown; valid values are
       # text/plain, text/x-rst, and text/markdown
       #
       # Optional if long_description is written in reStructuredText (rst) but
       # required for plain-text or Markdown; if unspecified, "applications should
       # attempt to render [the long_description] as text/x-rst; charset=UTF-8 and
       # fall back to text/plain if it is not valid rst" (see link below)
       #
       # This field corresponds to the "Description-Content-Type" metadata field:
       # https://packaging.python.org/specifications/core-metadata/#description-content-type-optional
       # Optional
       long_description_content_type="text/markdown",
    
       # This should be a valid link to your project's main homepage.
       #
       # This field corresponds to the "Home-Page" metadata field:
       # https://packaging.python.org/specifications/core-metadata/#home-page-optional
       # Optional
       url="https://github.com/PoplarYang/tobe",
    
       # This should be your name or the name of the organization which owns the
       # project.
       # Optional
       author="PoplarYang",
    
       # This should be a valid email address corresponding to the author listed
       # above.
       # Optional
       author_email="echohiyang@foxmail.com",
    
       # You can just specify package directories manually here if your project is
       # simple. Or you can use find_packages().
       #
       # Alternatively, if you just want to distribute a single Python file, use
       # the `py_modules` argument instead as follows, which will expect a file
       # called `my_module.py` to exist:
       #
       #   py_modules=["my_module"],
       #
       # Required
       packages = ["tobe"],
       #packages=setuptools.find_packages(),
    
       # This field lists other packages that your project depends on to run.
       # Any package you put here will be installed by pip when your project is
       # installed, so they must be valid existing projects.
       #
       # For an analysis of "install_requires" vs pip's requirements files see:
       # https://packaging.python.org/en/latest/requirements.html
       # Optional
       install_requires = [
           "colorama>=0.4.1"
       ],
    
       # To provide executable scripts, use entry points in preference to the
       # "scripts" keyword. Entry points provide cross-platform support and allow
       # `pip` to create the appropriate form of executable for the target
       # platform.
       #
       # For example, the following would provide a command called `sample` which
       # executes the function `main` from this package when invoked:
       # Optional
       entry_points={
           'console_scripts': [
               'tobe=tobe:main'
           ],
       },
    
       # Specify which Python versions you support. In contrast to the
       # 'Programming Language' classifiers above, 'pip install' will check this
       # and refuse to install the project if the version does not match. If you
       # do not support Python 2, you can simplify this to '>=3.5' or similar, see
       # https://packaging.python.org/guides/distributing-packages-using-setuptools/#python-requires
       # Optional
       #python_requires='>=2.7, !=3.0.*, !=3.1.*, !=3.2.*, !=3.3.*, !=3.4.*, <4',
    
       # If there are data files included in your packages that need to be
       # installed, specify them here.
       #
       # If using Python 2.6 or earlier, then these have to be included in
       # MANIFEST.in as well.
       #package_data={  # Optional
       #    'sample': ['package_data.dat'],
       #},
    
       # Although 'package_data' is the preferred approach, in some case you may
       # need to place data files outside of your packages. See:
       # http://docs.python.org/3.4/distutils/setupscript.html#installing-additional-files
       #
       # In this case, 'data_file' will be installed into '<sys.prefix>/my_data'
       # Optional
       #data_files=[('my_data', ['data/data_file'])],
    
       # Classifiers help users find your project by categorizing it.
       #
       # For a list of valid classifiers, see https://pypi.org/classifiers/
       # Optional
       classifiers=(
           # How mature is this project? Common values are
           #   3 - Alpha
           #   4 - Beta
           #   5 - Production/Stable
           'Development Status :: 3 - Alpha',
    
           # Indicate who your project is intended for
           'Intended Audience :: Developers',
           'Topic :: Software Development :: Build Tools',
    
           # Pick your license as you wish
           'License :: OSI Approved :: MIT License',
    
           # Specify the Python versions you support here. In particular, ensure
           # that you indicate whether you support Python 2, Python 3 or both.
           # These classifiers are *not* checked by 'pip install'. See instead
           # 'python_requires' below.
           'Programming Language :: Python :: 2',
           'Programming Language :: Python :: 2.7',
           'Programming Language :: Python :: 3',
           'Programming Language :: Python :: 3.5',
           'Programming Language :: Python :: 3.6',
           'Programming Language :: Python :: 3.7',
           'Programming Language :: Python :: 3.8',
           "Programming Language :: Python",
       ),
    
       # This field adds keywords for your project which will appear on the
       # project page. What does your project relate to?
       #
       # Note that this is a string of words separated by whitespace, not a list.
       # Optional
       keywords='ssh linux',
    
       # When your source code is in a subdirectory under the project root, e.g.
       # `src/`, it is necessary to specify the `package_dir` argument.
       # Optional
       #package_dir={'': 'src'},
       # List additional URLs that are relevant to your project as a dict.
       #
       # This field corresponds to the "Project-URL" metadata fields:
       # https://packaging.python.org/specifications/core-metadata/#project-url-multiple-use
       #
       # Examples listed include a pattern for specifying where the package tracks
       # issues, where the source is hosted, where to say thanks to the package
       # maintainers, and where to support the project financially. The key is
       # what's used to render the link text on PyPI.
       #project_urls={  # Optional
       #    'Bug Reports': 'https://github.com/pypa/sampleproject/issues',
       #    'Funding': 'https://donate.pypi.org',
       #    'Say Thanks!': 'http://saythanks.io/to/example',
       #    'Source': 'https://github.com/pypa/sampleproject/',
       #},
    )
    
  • name – 项目的名称
  • version – 项目的版本。需要注意的是,PyPI上只允许一个版本存在,如果后续代码有了任何更改,再次上传需要增加版本号
  • author和author_email – 项目作者的名字和邮件
  • description – 项目的简短描述
  • long_description – 项目的详细描述,会显示在PyPI的项目描述页面。上面的例子里直接用了README.md中的内容做详细描述
  • long_description_content_type – 用于指定long_description的markup类型,上面的例子是markdown
  • url – 项目主页的URL,一般给出代码仓库的链接
  • packages – 指定最终发布的包中要包含的packages。上面的例子中find_packages() 会自动发现项目根目录下所有的packages,当然也可以手动指定package的名字
  • install_requires – 项目依赖哪些库,这些库会在pip install的时候自动安装
  • entry_points – 上面的例子中entry_points用来自动创建脚本,上面的例子在pip install安装成功后会创建tobe这个命令,直接可以在命令行运行,即执行 tobe:main
  • classifiers – 其他信息,一般包括项目支持的Python版本,License,支持的操作系统。上面的例子中,我们指定项目只能在Python 3上运行,使用MIT License,不依赖操作系统。关于classifiers的完整列表,可参考 https://pypi.org/classifiers/
  1. MANIFEST.in

    记录需要放在包中的除了代码之外的其他文件。

    include pyproject.toml
    
    # Include the README
    include *.md
    
    # Include the license file
    include LICENSE.txt
    
    # Include the data files
    #recursive-include data *
    
  2. pyproject.toml

    在配置文件中将会有一个[build-system]表来存储与构建相关的数据。最初,表中只有一个关键字是有效的和必需的:requires。该键将包含一个字符串列表的值,代表执行构建系统所需的PEP 508依赖.

    [build-system]
    # These are the assumed default build requirements from pip:
    # https://pip.pypa.io/en/stable/reference/pip/#pep-517-and-518-support
    requires = ["setuptools>=40.8.0", "wheel"]
    build-backend = "setuptools.build_meta"
    

打包项目

  1. 打包项目需要用到setuptools和wheel,先安装这两个库
pip install setuptools
pip install wheel
  1. 安装完后,运行下面的命令打包
python setup.py sdist bdist_wheel

上面的命令会在dist/目录下生成一个tar.gz的源码包和一个.whl的Wheel包。

dist/
  *.whl
  *.tar.gz

打包完之后,我们可以从本地安装库,来验证我们的项目能否被成功安装,如下

pip install dist/*.whl

发布项目到PyPI

使用twine上传项目,先安装twine

pip install twine

安装完之后,运行下面的命令将库上传

twine upload dist/*

上传完成后,我们的项目就成功地发布到PyPI了。

这里需要先注册一个 PyPI 账户

附录

  1. pypi 免密上传,通过twine配置文件实现。

    $HOME/.pypirc` file with your username and password:

    [pypi]
    username = <username>
    password = <password>
    

    不建议将密码放入文件中

  2. pypi 官方测试环境 test.pypi.org。参考使用testpypi

  3. 直接从代码仓库安装python 包

    pip install -e git+https://git.repo/some_pkg.git#egg=SomeProject          # from git
    pip install -e hg+https://hg.repo/some_pkg#egg=SomeProject                # from mercurial
    pip install -e svn+svn://svn.repo/some_pkg/trunk/#egg=SomeProject         # from svn
    pip install -e git+https://git.repo/some_pkg.git@feature#egg=SomeProject  # from a branch
    
  4. 使 python 包在任何地方都能安装

    This is a wheel that can be installed anywhere by pip.

    setup.cfg (e.g., see sampleproject/setup.cfg):

    [bdist_wheel]
    universal=1
    

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